VOLUME 2 ISSUE 7
IJATSER Volume 2 – Issue 7, July 2017 Edition
All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.
IIJ7-01: Review on Different Floating Point Adders
AUTHORS: Neelesh Thakur, Rama Pandole
Abstract – Addition is the most complex operation in a floating-point unit and can cause major delay while requiring a significant area. Over the years, the VLSI community has developed many floating-point adder algorithms aimed primarily at reducing the overall latency. An efficient design of the floating-point adder offers major area and performance improvements for FPGAs. This paper studies the implementation of standard; leading-one predictor (LOP); and far and close datapath (2-path) floating-point addition algorithms in FPGAs. Each algorithm has complex sub-operations which contribute significantly to the overall latency of the design. Each of the sub-operations is researched for different implementations According to the results, the standard algorithm is the best implementation with respect to area, but has a large overall latency of 27.059 ns while occupying 541 slices. The LOP algorithm reduces latency by 6.5% at the cost of a 38% increase in area compared to the standard algorithm. The 2-path implementation shows a 19% reduction in latency with an added expense of 88% in area compared to the standard algorithm. The five-stage standard pipeline implementation shows a 6.4% improvement in clock speed compared to the Xilinx IP with a 23% smaller area requirement. The five-stage pipelined LOP implementation shows a 22% improvement in clock speed compared to the Xilinx IP at a cost of 15% more area.
Keywords – Floating point adder, FPGA, Delay, Area overhead
IIJ7-02 : OPTIMIZATION OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS USING PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
AUTHORS: Ritesh khatarkar , Mr. Anurag kulshrestha
Abstract: Refrigeration systems consume a substantial amount of energy. A large fraction (typically, about 80%) of practical refrigerators are of vapor compression type and operate with mechanical energy input. In most cases the mechanical energy is derived from electric motors. In the present work Pulse wave modulation technique is used to reduce the energy content of the system and to increase the C.O.P of the system. Modeling and analysis work was done on various evaporating temperatures to find out the energy efficiency and C.O.P of the system .The analysis was conducted using MATLAB and verified experimentally. It was seen that the energy savings in the range of 30% were observed and efficiency of the system also improves.
IIJ7-03:IMPROVING THE FLEXUTRAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENT CONCRETE MODIFIED WITH SBR LATEX
AUTHORS: Er. Nakul Kumar Wadsamudrakar, Prof. H.P Singh
ABSTRACT: Polymers are introduced into concrete in an effort to improve its performance and durability. It has been observed that polymer-modified concrete (PMC) is more durable than conventional concrete due to higher strength and lower porosity. Experiments were conducted to determine how the properties of concrete were affected by the insertion of polymers. This research was carried out to establish the effects of styrene butadiene rubber latex polymer addition on compressive strength and flexural strength using concrete with mix design of constant workability and constant water-cement ratio at local temperature. The mixes were prepared with polymer-cement ratio of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and the mix design was done on the basis of I.S code. Slump test was conducted on fresh concrete while water absorption, compressive strength and flexural strength were determined at the age of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days from samples respectively. It has been observed that SBR latex improves the internal structure of the latex modified concrete resulting in considerable reduction in the water absorption value at 28 days of age. However, at early age, the effect of SBR latex on water absorption is adverse. Same trend is noticed for the compressive strength; at 7 days of age, SBR latex has negative effect while at 28 days, the addition of SBR latex in concrete results in enhancement of compressive strength. However, good results observed in flexural strength of modified concrete. The ultimate tensile strength of concrete is very important as it is the property that is responsible for the failure of concrete even in compression.
Keywords: Concrete, SBR latex, Flexural, Compressive, Workability, Polymer modification.
IIJ7-04:A REVIEW PAPER ON PERSPECTIVE OF E-WASTE & ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
AUTHORS: Kumari Ruchi , Dr. Rajesh Shriramsa Gujar
ABSTRACT: E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20–25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed to the contaminants through smoke, dust, drinking water and food. There is evidence that E-waste associated contaminants may be present in some agricultural or manufactured products for export.
IIJ7-05:A study paper on four machine power system
AUTHORS: MURALIDHAR VERMA, NAND KISHORE
ABSTRACT: Transient solidness contemplates assume an imperative part in giving secured working arrangements in control framework systems. This paper demonstrates an examination of the impacts of some key power framework parameters on transient soundness. The parameters for which this investigation is completed incorporate blame area, stack increase, machine damping factor, blame clearing time and generator synchronous speed. The investigation has been done on a 7-transport test framework for an electric service organization. From this investigation, the effect of these parameters on control framework transient dependability has been highlighted.
Keywords-fault location; load increment; machine damping factor; fault clearing time; generator synchronous speed.